When it comes to discussing the weather in Portuguese, there are two key verbs you need to know: estar and fazer. Understanding how to conjugate these verbs correctly can help you to express yourself more effectively and communicate with native speakers with more confidence.
Estar is the most commonly used verb to talk about the current weather, since it's our way of discussing states of being that are temporary and/or transitory. It is conjugated to match the subject pronoun in a sentence, for example, "Eu estou a chover" (I am raining), which doesn't make any sense whatsoever, but illustrates how verbs are conjugated according to the subject in a sentence.
To describe the weather, you simply use the appropriate adjective after the 3rd person singular of the (ele - o tempo) conjugated form of estar. Here are some examples:
(o tempo/ele) Está chuvoso (it's rainy)
(o tempo/ele) Está sol (it's sunny)
(o tempo/ele) Está vento (it's windy)
Fazer, on the other hand, is used to describe the weather conditions in a more general sense. For example, "Hoje está a fazer sol" (Today it's sunny), or "Amanhã vai fazer calor" (Tomorrow it's going to be hot). When using fazer in this way, the verb is conjugated in the third person, and the adjective is placed after it. You can also use fazer in the 3rd person singular as we did with estar, and formulate similar expressions. Here are some examples using the same weather words as before:
(o tempo/ele) Faz chuva
(o tempo/ele) Faz sol
(o tempo/ele) Faz vento
In addition to these basic weather expressions, there are also many more intermediate fluency expressions that you can learn to express your thoughts more effectively. For example, "está muito quente" (it's very hot), or "está frio de rachar" (it's freezing).
So whether you're trying to explain the current conditions or forecast for the future, the verbs estar and fazer are key to expressing yourself in Portuguese. With practice and patience, you'll soon be speaking like a native about the weather!
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